Cancer compensation

Cancer compensation

Compensation for injured workers and mesothelioma

In this issue of the Canadian Respiratory Journal, the article by Payne and Pichora ( a ) (pages 148-152 ), on claims for mesothelioma in Ontario between 1980 and 2002, disturbed me. The authors compared these requests to the number of cases of mesothelioma diagnosed according to the Ontario Cancer Registry (OCR). The method was relatively simple, as it was to compare two solid databases. To check consistency, the authors have paralleled all claims for occupational cancer and data from the ROC, they found a concordance rate of 86% and 93% between mesothelioma claims honored and the references to the ROC. Among the subjects compensated for mesothelioma, about 85% had diagnosed appropriate for the ROC.

Alternatively, an average of about 35% of mesothelioma patients had a claim over the 22 years covered by the study. Claim rates have gradually increased from 20% to 30% and 43%, during the period of 22 years. The complaints were mostly made for men (peak 57% of cases of mesothelioma), and for subjects 50 to 59 years rather than older subjects, although most cases of mesothelioma registered in ROC involved individuals over 60 years.
Cancer compensation

These results were unpleasantly surprised me. Mesothelioma is a disease distinct, caused by exposure to asbestos in the vast majority of cases ( 2 ). One could argue that in men, mesothelioma is almost by definition, a marker of exposure to asbestos usually, usually work related. Although it can occur in contexts other than work-related exposure, mesothelioma affects, supporting evidence, people who were exposed to asbestos either because they live near mines or industries that use it, either, because they are exposed to the clothes of asbestos workers, often women in this case ( 2 ). It is recognized that since the 1960s, of all occupational lung diseases, mesothelioma is one of the most clearly associated with a specific agent and not to other factors related to lifestyle. It is precisely this piece of information that motivated and Pichora Payne ( 1 ) to research on mesothelioma. They expressed concern at the sight of evidence that the compensation claims for occupational disease were generally low, and they believed that mesothelioma could be an excellent test case because of its particular etiology.
How does one explain this low rate of compensation claims? It is amazing that the majority of mesothelioma patients have not been exposed to asbestos, while the workplace is the main source of such exposure. Many patients who did not complain to necessarily have been exposed to asbestos. One possible reason to explain the few complaints is that people with mesothelioma have a extremely short life expectancy, so it is often very little to compensate. In reality, compensation may be paid to survivors, and I suspect that few mesothelioma patients leave their heirs a legacy well stocked. This bias in survival could explain that the claims were higher after pre-retirement, although the window 20 to 40 years between exposure, and the development of mesothelioma makes it much more likely the occurrence of the disease after retirement.
I believe, like the authors, only part of the answer lies in the results recorded in Lambton County, Ontario. I do not know where is this county, but I think there were a shipyard or other asbestos-related industries at a time. Regardless, the incidence of mesothelioma in Lambton County is about four times higher than the provincial average and 77% of these mesothelioma patients have addressed a claim for work injury. Clearly, there is much more familiar than elsewhere with the problems of asbestos in Lambton County and, in my opinion, this fact can be explained largely by the involvement of the medical community. Doctors Lambton County had heard the message about mesothelioma, and this is what should other doctors. It is encouraging to learn that several provinces have or are about to make mesothelioma a notifiables disease, thereby notifying doctors that their patients are suffering from a disease that gives most likely entitled to compensation for accident of work.
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Malignant cancers

Malignant cancers

Malignant pleural mesothelioma: biology and diagnostic

Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is increasing concern about cancer incidence and poor prognosis, although real progress in caring for patients. The diagnosis is usually made on the modern stage, when radical treatment is no longer available. It undergoes a significant increase in survival in MPM, including the early diagnosis of the disease. Biologically, a number of potential tumor markers soluble, including mesothelia and osteopontin, have been proposed to assist the diagnosis, but none have been approved to date. Mesothelin, measured in blood and pleural fluid appears to be the most interesting candidate. However, although this marker has a decent symptomatic and prognostic importance, its high specificity for the subtype of epithelioid mesothelioma (most often) restricts its use in practice. Other molecules are somewhat interesting, sometimes, despite good sensitivity, especially because of their low diagnostic specificity. Finally, available data do not argue for routine use in biology in the diagnosis of MPM, thoracoscopy, and the remaining histology verified. We must continue our search and evaluation of soluble mesothelia tumor markers in clinical trials.
Malignant cancers

Another malignant pleural mesothelioma breast cancer: biology and diagnosis
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a serious issue because of the increasing incidence and poor prognosis of its in the world although the real improvement of disease management. The majority of patients are diagnosed late throughout the disease, when treatment is the more radical variant of this year. Earlier this year, it was necessary to significantly increase survival of patients diagnosed with MPM. Some of the soluble markers, including soluble Mesothelin, and osteopontin, have been proposed previously calculated for any diagnosis of MPM has not been approved yet. Soluble Mesothelin, estimated blood and pleural effusion, it seems that the most promising candidate. However, even if he has a decent diagnostic and prognostic significance, it is quite a special epithelioid subtype, one of the most common mesothelioma, Malthus imitating its used in practice. Although sometimes a good sensitivity, etc., as possible marker's osteopontin has a low specificity because of the diagnosis of MPM is a little interesting. In conclusion, the present data do not justify the routine use of biology for MPM diagnosis does suggest the need for continued evaluation of soluble Mesothelin injustement to clinical studies and the search for potential tumor markers other.
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Asbestos exposure and cancer

Asbestos exposure and cancer

Professional sector, which includes exposure to asbestos mining and use of asbestos because of its properties.
  • The extraction unit
  • Isolation (in the building, manufacturing of industrial furnaces for heat and cold production equipment yards) and isolation (fireproofing products containing asbestos is prohibited since 1977)
  • The use of asbestos in thermal protection (gloves, aprons, beads, blankets ...) in various industries: shipbuilding, steel, foundry, glass manufacturing and construction.

Those who have worked directly with asbestos or asbestos products, but the greatest risk of developing mesothelioma, mesothelioma has been reported that some individuals who have minimal exposure.
Asbestos exposure and cancer

Occupations with a high risk of developing mesothelioma cancer:
  • Joinery iron
  • Builders of the chassis of the car
  • plumbers
  • gas technician
  • Carpenters
  • electricians
  • Workers in the building
  • Masons
  • developers
  • DIYers
  • The steel
  • Artists
  • Sheet Metal Workers
  • Welders
 Since the ban on importation and manufacture of materials containing asbestos(Decree 96-1133, 24/12/1996), the interference of the site materials containing asbestos is a major problem, especially with all the professionals (asbestos removal) .
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Consequences of cancer Mesothelioma

Consequences of cancer Mesothelioma

Although reported incidence rates have increased over the past twenty years, mesothelioma is still a relatively rare cancer.

The incidence is approximately one case per million inhabitants. For comparison, populations with high smoking rates can reach over a thousand lung cancer per million people.

Incidence of malignant mesothelioma currently reached a level of about 7 to 40 cases per 1 million people in Western industrialized countries, according to the size of the population in the last decades of exposure to asbestos.
It was initiated that the occurrence may reach 15 per 1 million inhabitants since in 2004.
Consequences of cancer Mesothelioma

It is predictable that the frequency continues to rise in further parts of the world. Mesothelioma occurs more regularly in men than in women and risk increases with age; however, this disease can transpire in men or women at any age.

It can be said that the epidemic of mesothelioma was found in three Turkish villages (Tuzkoy Sarehidir and Karain).

She is now responsible for 50% of deaths there.
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Cancer unknown primary

Cancer unknown primary

Cancer unknown to the public: mesothelioma (mesothelioma)

What is mesothelioma cancer?
Mesothelioma or mesothelioma is a rare and virulent cancer of the mesothelial surfaces of which affect the lining of the lungs (pleura), abdomen (peritoneum) or the lining around the heart (pericardium).

Mesothelioma is caused by exposure to mineral fibers (asbestos, for example).
Some of them were exposed to their work, and secondly from other family members who are unwittingly fibers to the home on their work clothes or hair or skin.

The most common mesothelioma cancer is a result of exposure from 20 to 50 years or more.

Malignant mesothelioma rare cancer, starting with the Mesothelium, membrane that covers and protects most internal organs.
Cancer unknown primary

Mesothelium has two layers, one that surrounds the body itself, and other forms sac around it completely. A typically produces a small amount of fluid between these two layers, lubricant's movement of protected members.

When normal cells cannot find Management Mesothelium and spread quickly, they turn into mesothelioma.

Form of mesothelioma is the most common malignant pleural mesothelioma.
It occurs in the pleura, the lining of the lungs. Other forms of peritoneal mesothelioma, reaching the peritoneum lining the abdominal cavity and pericardial mesothelioma pericardium.

The emergence of this disease, sometimes referred to as asbestos cancer, this fiber is the main recognized risk factor for this cancer is not indicative of minimum exposure and medical treatments have limited influence life expectancy of patients, usually 12 to 18 months.

Real market for lawyers, mesothelioma cancer exists in the United States; certain keywords are present, such as mesothelioma lawyers, mesothelioma attorneys, mesothelioma treatments and mesothelioma also.

The initial signs found on clinical examination, chest pain, often associated with shortness of breath and recurrent pleural effusion, usually hemorrhagic. Latency between first exposure and the development of mesothelioma is seldom less than 20 years, eventually 30 to 40 years or more. There seems to be no threshold of exposure in relation to the risk of occurrence.

She described the case of pleural mesothelioma occurring in a family environment, close to workers exposed to asbestos; subjects are exposed to contamination of residential premises or during maintenance in dusty clothes.

Tobacco acts as a synergistic cofactor in the risk of developing mesothelioma.
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Benign mesothelioma of the uterus

Benign mesothelioma of the uterus

Benin mesothelioma of the uterus was first described in 1942. The old name of adenomatoid tumor fell due to the presence of structure's pseudoglandular suggestive of an adenoma.

Benin mesothelioma generally affects the genital tract.

This tumor is more frequently observed in humans in the epididymis, but it also affects the female genital tract, sitting at the trunk (48%), uterus (42%) or yet the ovary (7%). It is the most common benign tumor of the fallopian tube.

However, rare cases of mesothelioma have been reported in Benin at the heart of the adrenal gland, mesentery, pleura and retroperitoneal.

The histogenesis of these tumors has long been debated. Assumptions of epithelial, endothelial, mesothelial or Müllerian were discussed. Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural studies have now established more recent origin of these tumors mesothelial justifying the term mesothelioma Benin.
Benign mesothelioma of the uterus

The incidence of mesothelioma of the uterus Benin on hysterectomy was 0.37% in the series of Huang et al. and 1.2% according to Mainguene. However, the true incidence of this tumor is probably more important because it often goes unnoticed because of its small size and its resemblance to leiomyomas and adenomyomas.

The average age of onset is 41 years, with extremes ranging over from 20 to 85 years. Our patient, aged 30, was relatively young.

It is most often discovered incidentally but may prove, as in our case, by abdominal pain, cycle disorders usually caused by concomitant lesions (endometriosis or leiomyoma). Preoperative assessment does not suspect the diagnosis. Indeed, the sonographic appearance is that of a leiomyoma or uterine adéomyome However, MRI may have a definite contribution in cystic forms.

The most benign mesothelioma of the uterus is subserous or located at the outer layers of the myometrium. The posterior surface of the uterus, particularly near the bottom or horns, is a location of choice. In our case, mesothelioma had a classic location: subserous, at the posterior surface of the uterus.

Benin mesothelioma of the uterus occurs most often as a solitary nodule. The macroscopic appearance is similar to that of leiomyoma. This is a firm mass, well circumscribed but less clearly a leiomyoma, write to yellow cup, more or less fasciculata. The mean diameter is close to 2 cm.. However, other forms of the diffuse or multinodular uterus have been described; these are rare and benign lesions, reported almost exclusively in patients treated with immunosuppressants in renal transplantation.

Benin mesothelioma of the uterus is often associated with other uterine tumors, usually benign (leiomyomas in 59-80% of cases, adenomyomas in 16.6% of cases). The coexistence of this tumor with cervical cancer or endometrial cancer was reported in the literature.

Several histological types were found. Quigley and Hart described four types: adenoid, angiomatoid (most common), solid and cystic. A combination of two or more components is possible.

The shape of cystic mesothelioma of the uterus Benin is the rarest and is localized in subserous or intramural. Two of the five cases of mesothelioma reported in the literature cystic tumors were multilocular with the presence of a dense component. The three other cases, like our patient, have purely cystic tumors without solid quota or partitions.

Histologically, the lesion consists of a proliferation of cuboidal cells or flattened, arranged in granuliform structures, pseudo-vascular or trabecular, embedded between bundles of hyperplastic smooth muscle fibers. Immunohistochemical study revealed a depression of cytokeratins and vimentin indicating a mesothelial origin. Electron microscopy, cells have the ultrastructural features of mesothelial cells: microvilli, tonofilament bundles, desmosomes between many cells, but absent from the basement membrane is also thickened. The diagnosis of adenomatoid tumor multinodular based on histological and adenomatoid angiomatosis, and on the immunohistochemical profile. Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural studies have now established the mesothelial origin of these tumors justifying the term mesothelioma Benin.

Adenocarcinoma is a differential diagnosis of mesothelioma Benin cancer. At the histological level, Benin mesothelioma of the uterus is distinguished by a more regular architecture, cells lacking atypia and a tumor that pushes at most endometrial without infiltrate.

In addition, adenocarcinoma does not express vimentin. Similarly, vascular proliferation such as lymphangiomas, hemangiomas or angiomyoma can raise difficult problems of differential diagnosis with ultrasound forms angiomatous or cystic benign mesothelioma. Light microscopic immunohistochemistry shows in the case of tumors of vascular origin anti cytokeratin antibody negative.

Evolution of Benin mesothelioma of the uterus is always favorable, without risk of recurrence or malignant transformation.

However, it can progress to a gradual increase in size with tumors larger than 10 cm.
In the rare cases where the diagnosis is mesothelioma Benin worn preoperatively, limited surgical excision is indicated. A hysterectomy can be performed because other uterine lesions (adenomyosis and / or leiomyoma) associated. In our case, resection of the prominent dome appears to be sufficient given the lack of risk of recurrence and malignant transformation.


Benin mesothelioma of the uterus is a histological diagnosis of tumor. Preoperative assessment does not suspect the diagnosis because of the similarity with ultrasonographic leiomyoma. The cystic form reported in our work is very rare. Mesothelial origin is now well established. Evolution of Benin mesothelioma of the uterus is always favorable, without risk of recurrence or malignant transformation. The elective treatment is surgical excision limited.
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Benign Mesothelioma

Benign Mesothelioma

Unexpected diagnosis Cystic Pelvic Mass before a: Benin Mesothelioma of the Uterus. About a Case.

Prerequisites: Benin Mesothelioma is a rare solid tumor, most often discovered incidentally and mainly affecting the urogenital sphere. The cystic form is even rarer.

Observation: We report the case of a woman aged 30 years which consulted for pelvic pain, pelvic cystic mass was discovered on ultrasound. Surgical exploration objectified training of the posterior surface of the uterus. Resection of the prominent dome was performed. Histological examination combined with immunohistochemical study concludes with a cystic mesothelioma Benign.
Benign Mesothelioma

Conclusion: The Benin mesothelioma of the uterus is a tumor histological discovery. For solid dosage forms, the differential diagnosis can arise with a leiomyoma or adenomyoma, while cystic forms, more rare, can deceive mainly with ovarian cyst.

Positivity mesothelial markers in immunohistochemistry improve diagnosis. This is a tumor with a favorable outcome, without risk of recurrence or malignant transformation.

Mesothelioma is a tumor Benin, relatively rare, the female genital tract. It is usually asymptomatic and discovered incidentally. This tumor is most often encountered at the tube and the uterus, and more rarely in the ovary and ovarian tissue para. It is also known for being the most common benign tumor of the fallopian tube. Approximately, 130 cases have been reported in the literature.

Typically, mesothelioma Benin appears as a small solitary nodule and solid when its frequency is underestimated because it is often taken leiomyoma or adenomyoma. Diagnosis is eventually discovered histologically. The shape of cystic mesothelioma of the uterus Benign is much rarer; it was first described in 1987.

From this observation, we approached the clinic, the different histopathological aspects, treatment and prognosis of mesothelioma of the uterus Benign.
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Diagnosis mesothelioma

Diagnosis mesothelioma

Some keywords: Chest X-ray, pulmonary function tests, CT scanned (or CAT) scan or MRI cytology if plenty of fluids, transthoracic biopsy, histopathology, thoracoscopy, laparoscopy.

Results Immunohistochemical typical

EMA (epithelial membrane antigen epithelial membrane antigen =)
WT1 (Wilms tumor 1)
Cytokeratin 5/6
HBME-1 (human mesothelial cell 1 = human mesothelial cell 1)

CEA ( carcinoembryonic antigen )
OMC-3 1
Diagnosis mesothelioma

Test Guidelines
There is no collectively customary protocol for selection people who have been open to the elements to asbestos. However, some studies show that level of osteopontin in serum is useful for screening for mesothelioma among exposed individuals. The point of soluble mesothelia associated protein is high-minded in about 75% of patients; diagnosis was definite, and it was optional that it may be helpful for screening.

Assessment and evaluation
Formerly, the diagnosis was complete; the doctor will have to pathological grade of the tumor to evaluate a therapeutic strategy to adopt. Mesothelioma described as cancers who are located only on the surface of the pleura, the membrane at the start. It is as if one advanced extension of the original surface of the pleura to further parts of the body such as lungs, lymph nodes, abdominal organs, or chest wall.
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What is asbestos

What is asbestos

The occurrence of this disease, sometimes referred to as cancer of the asbestos, the fiber is the main recognized risk factor for this cancer, is not indicative of a minimum of exposure and medical treatment has an impact limited life expectancy of patients.

The initial signs found on clinical examination of chest pain are often associated with shortness of breath and recurrent pleural effusion, usually haemorrhagic. The latency between first exposure and the development of mesothelioma is seldom less than 20 years, eventually around 30 to 40 years or more. There seems to be no threshold of exposure in relation to a risk of occurrence.

It has been described cases of pleural mesothelioma occurring in the family environment close to the workers exposed to asbestos; subjects are exposed due to contamination of residential premises or during maintenance of dusty clothes.
What is asbestos

The tobacco does not appear to increase the risk of developing mesothelioma then it is an additional risk factor for lung cancer (PBC).
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Define mesothelioma

Define mesothelioma

Mesothelioma is a rare and virulent cancer of the mesothelial surfaces that affects the lining of the lungs (the pleura ), abdominal cavity (the peritoneum ) or the envelope of the heart (the pericardium ). Pulmonary mesothelioma is caused by exposure to mineral fibers (such as asbestos, or erionite ).

Current studies do not confirm the relationship between exposure to asbestos and the development of peritoneal mesothelioma, although recent data appear to establish, especially in men.

Some individuals were exposed at their workplace, while others were exposed secondarily through family members who, unbeknownst to them, have brought fiber to the home from their work in their clothes or their hair or on their skin.
Define mesothelioma

Mesothelioma is a notifiables disease, health professionals must serve it on the doctor of the Regional Health Agency.
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Pulmonary lobectomy

Pulmonary lobectomy

After many pulmonary I recently spent a scanner and an endoscopy which revealed that my middle lobe was completely dead, although she is perfectly healthy bronchus.

I'm constantly infectious state, which, to the amazement of my doctors do not cause cough or sputum or even no fever. Only the pain is sometimes the annoying chest.

My pulmonology, who cannot explain why this "death" lobe directs me to a lobectomy (removal of the diseased lobe). It encourages me to schedule this before the summer.

And then, I confess, I am a little lost ...

First because I have a hard time finding information on this operation normally reserved for people with lung cancer, and also because I do not know the postoperative course.

My pulmonology should tell me soon ms remain ignorant until next week bite my blood.
Pulmonary lobectomy

So if you have suffered this type of intervention thank you enlighten me on the duration of the operation, recovery, recovery from sports ... etc.
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You see the fact sheet Alimta in the following format: 100 mg powder for a solution for infusion Box of one vial of 100 mg of powder

Therapeutic class: Oncology and Hematology

Composition: Pemetrexed

Presentation: 100 mg Powder for a solution for infusion Box of one vial of 100 mg of powder

Indications Dosage Warnings against Interactions Precautions Side effects

- Malignant pleural mesothelioma:
ALIMTA in mixture with cisplatin is indicated for the healing of patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma whose disease is unrespectable and who have not up to that time received chemotherapy.

- Non-small lung cancer cells:
  • ALIMTA in mixture with cisplatin is indicated for patients with non-small cell lung cancer, locally advanced or metastatic, when the histology is predominantly squamous-cell carcinoma.
  • ALIMTA is indicated as monotherapy for second-line treatment in patients with non-small cell lung cancer in locally advanced or metastatic, when the histology is not primarily squamous-cell carcinoma.
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Oncolytic viruses

Oncolytic viruses

Other oncolytic viruses exist, and it is even possible to make new viruses by changing the existing order to obtain the required properties. The strain of measles, but major benefits: used since the late 60s, every year millions of children to be vaccinated is documented safety of its administration. Furthermore, the virus an anti-tumor activity "pitch": this will not only lead to damage to infect tumor cells, but it will be simultaneous activation of the cells of the immune system of the patient to fall well to the tumor. "The destruction of cancer cells by virus leads to the production of the warning signals, which are recognized by the immune system," Marc said Gregory. "The immune response, in particular, next to the tumor cells then in implementation. More data suggest that there is a plan immunological memory cell production." In this case, vaccines against the measles viruses not only destroy the tumor, but also to prevent recurrence again a tumor in the body; the immune attack cell is comparable. The last point is the control and DRS Gregory and spicy is not active.
Oncolytic viruses

The exploit of this virus, and further oncolytic viruses has previously been tested in clinical trials, mainly at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester (Minnesota,USA). U.S. test results are not yet published, but according to Marc Grégoire, they would rather encourage. Viruses tested at the Mayo Clinic to date would treat many types of cancer such as myeloma, gliomas, glioblastomas, ovarian carcinoma or even breast cancer. "We work on the model of mesothelioma [cancer of the pleura], but we are also looking forward to testing this approach on melanoma and lung cancers. The basic system is ready. There are still many details to be validated, but the use of oncolytic viruses as antitumor vaccine that against measles could start in a future not far."
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Cancer fighting virus

Cancer fighting virus

They do not attack healthy cells of the body. They infect only cancer cells and destroy them. These oncolytic viruses, viruses that could become formidable anticancer weapons.

A virus against cancer?

A virus that is already saving the lives of millions of children could become a new weapon against cancer. This virus is one that is used to vaccinate against measles, a live version, but "down" the virus that causes the childhood disease. "There are viruses that will preferentially infect cancer cells. It is the case of the virus the vaccine against measles "said Marc Gregory, director of research at the Institute for Therapeutic Research, University of Nantes. "These viruses penetrate cancer cells and cause their destruction" he explains. We talk about viruses "oncolytic."
Cancer fighting virus
* Funded by the CRA, Mark Gregory and his team began to show interest in these viruses following a discussion with a researcher at the Pasteur Institute in Paris, Frederic Tangy. The team Nantes had almost discovered that many cancer cells on their surface showed an unusual amount of a protein called CD 46. The researcher knew Paris meanwhile that the attenuated virus vaccine against measles had just needed this protein to infect human cells. It thus was born the idea of using this virus to destroy cancer cells.
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Cancer glossary

Cancer glossary


Hematopoiesis manufacturing process of the various constituents known blood (red and white cells, platelets) primarily in the bone marrow.

Hemolytic due to the destruction of red blood cells.

Heterozygous II is used when the two chromosomes of a parire are in the same location, two dissimilar genes.
Histocompatibility compatibility between tissues or organs from a donor and a recipient. This compatibility depends on the genetic heritage of both.

For histological tissue composition under the microscope.

(HLA System) system for determining the compatibility of donor and recipient white blood cells, platelets, and organs. It ensures the survival of cells transfused or transplanted and success of transfusion or transplant. The HLA system marks the character of everyone, the monitors and defends against external aggression.

Hormones Chemicals produced by certain glands of the body, carried by blood to the organs or tissues they stimulate or inhibit development.

Hypermetabolisms large amount of chemical changes that occur in the body.

Hyper-lymphocytosis B blood benign disease characterized by abnormalities in the production of B lymphocytes.

Hyper-B lymphocytosis identified chronic increase in the number of B cells but is not accompanied by any symptoms, and as such, may not truly be considered a leukemia.

Hormonal hypersecretion pancreatic hormone production in excess of charge, including hypoglycemia, diabetes or bowel dysfunction.

Falling rate of hypoglycemia blood sugar (glucose) can cause discomfort and even coma.
The pituitary small Endocrine glands located at the base of the brain. It exerts a regulatory action on other endocrine glands.

Jaundice (or yellowing) yellowing of the skin and mucous membranes (sometimes with dark urine, pale stools and itchy skin). These signs are associated with dermal deposition and mucosal components of bile, which due to obstruction of the bile duct (alternatively alternatively of liver dysfunction), cannot be evacuated. They then pass into the bloodstream and are responsible for the yellow color.

Immunosuppression (treatment) Treatment that reduces or eliminates the immunological reactions of the body block the immune system. This treatment, also called immunosuppressive therapy, is used in unrelated marrow and organ transplants to prevent rejection.
Cancer glossary

Immunosuppressant that brings down the body's immune defenses.

Immunoglobulin antibodies play an important role in host defense against aggression.

Immunological study of immune system reactions to the introduction of foreign agents. By extension, all the reactions of the organism cope with infectious agents and cancers.

Interstitial implant radioactive source implanted directly into the tumor.

Intracavitary radioactive source implanted implanted in a body cavity.

Impotence inability to have an erection.

Incidence number of new cases of disease per annum.

Incontinence, inability to hold urine in the bladder.

Undifferentiated (Cancer) cancer cells which no longer resemble (morphology, size, function) to the normal cell.

Induction (treatment) Intensive treatment that uses very heavy chemotherapy. Induction therapy can be used either for treating cancer, either in order to destroy the white blood cells of the patient to practice allograft.

Inguinal located in the groin.

Instillation Action poured or injects a liquid drip.

Intravesical instillation of drug deposition in the bladder.

Insulin hypoglycemic hormone involved in regulating blood sugar.

Insulinoma tumor developed in the tissues of the endocrine pancreas.

Isotopes of chemical elements having the same atomic number (same number of protons) but with different masses (different numbers of neutrons).

Isthmus narrow part of a region or organ.

Piece of muscle or flap of skin taken for breast reconstruction.

Leukemia cancer manifested by an uncontrolled proliferation of blood cells.

Leukoplakia chronic condition that affects the mucous membranes, usually at the mouth. It is characterized by white patches. In some cases, they can lead to cancer.

LHRH (initials: luteinising hormone releasing hormone) hormone ensuring control of sex hormones in men and women.

Lineage cell population derived from a single cell.

Natural breast lobe segmentation: each breast has 15 to 20 lobes.

(Lymphatic system) all tissues and organs, including bone marrow, spleen, thymus, tonsils and lymph nodes, that produce and hoard the cells that fight infection (lymphocytes). The network carrying the lymph node is one.

Colorless liquid lymph bathing the tissues and cells containing protecting the body against infections.

Accumulation of lymph lymphedema in a limb, following the removal or engorgement of the lymph nodes.

Lymphoma cancer of the lymph.

Kahler's disease cancer of plasma cells, normally located in the bone marrow. It is also called multiple myeloma.

Recklinghausen disease inherited disease characterized by spots "late" of the skin and multiple tumors affecting particularly the peripheral nerves and spinal meninges, and skin. The disease progression is slow and, at an advanced stage, damage internal organs and bones may occur.

Von Hippel-Lindau Hereditary that drives the development of various tumors in the pancreas, adrenals, kidneys, central nervous system and retina.

Waldenström disease proliferation of plasma cells responsible for purpura hyperglobulinémique reaching particularly women.

Bilateral prophylactic mastectomy preventive removal of both breasts.

Mammography X-ray image of the breast.

Tumor marker detectable substance in the body, including abnormally high assay indicates the presence of cancer.

Mastectomy Surgical removal of the breast (mastectomy also called).

Mea urinary opening of the urinary tract (urethra).

Pertaining to medullary bone marrow.

Melanoma tumor after a melanocyte (or pigment) of the epidermis.

Menopausal hormonal changes leading to termination of rules.

Mesothelioma tumor of the pleura, the membrane around the lungs.

All metabolic biochemical transformations and physicochemical that occur in all body tissues and experienced by constituents of living matter.

Metabolite's substances formed during metabolism.

Metastasize migrates from an initial focus to another area of the body.

Metastatic tumor cells found away from the initial outbreak.

Metastases in transit metastases found mainly in melanoma, characterized by nodules on the skin.

Mucositis mucosal inflammatory reaction caused by certain treatments.

Multifocal which has several homes.

Mutagenic agent who can induce mutations.

Mutation and random change in the final structure of DNA that can, in some cases, change the function of a gene and prevent it from functioning normally.

Myelogram examination to indicate the respective proportions of the different cellular elements of bone marrow.
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Pulmonary pleurisy

Pulmonary pleurisy

Asbestos also promotes pleurisy.

Note that asbestos also increases the risk of pleurisy or inflammation of the pleura. This condition as well results in acute chest pain, worsening during deep breathing or coughing. Due to inflammation, the two layers do not slide as normally one of the other, the movements become painful. Shortness of breath, fever, chills, dry cough and general malaise complete the picture.

However, unlike the pleural cancer diagnosis of pleurisy is easy because the noise made ​​by rubbing the leaves against each other is characteristic and identifiable with a stethoscope.
Pulmonary pleurisy

Tobacco and pneumothorax

Going back to smoking, it also represents a risk factor for another disease of the lungs: pneumothorax. It is this time of effusion of air into the pleura, inside the double layer, which can push the lung. Indeed, if the air does not drain, it creates pressure on the lung. It follows a pain acute chest on deep inspiration and during coughing, and difficulty breathing, including shortness of breath. The diagnosis of pneumothorax is increased by detecting the noise of shortness of breath.
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Factors that increase the risk of cancer

Factors that increase the risk of cancer


Tobacco is the main risk factor for cancer in the lung. However, smokers are there further forms of lung disease, such as pleural cancer (mesothelioma) and pneumothorax? The point of this lung disease and their relationship with tobacco.

The pleural cancer or mesothelioma is mainly due to asbestos excluding tobacco is as well a significant risk factor. In addition, addition, the risk of mesothelioma increased sharply in persons professionally exposed to asbestos, the more smokers.

This cancer is rare (1000 cases diagnosed each year), but very aggressive and poor prognosis. Often confused with lung cancer, but it is a particularly timely pleura, the membrane that surrounds the lungs and lines the chest. Asbestos fibers and carcinogens present in tobacco smoke are moving to inflammation of the pleura and subsequently triggers scarring. Mesothelial cells eventually develop into malignant tumors.

What are the warning signs? Of breathing difficulties and chest pain primarily, but also: weight loss, fever, night sweats, cough.
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Mesothelioma of the pleura

Mesothelioma of the pleura

Cancer or mesothelioma of the pleura: when to see?

The main sign of mesothelioma is the collection of fluid in the pleura, causing pain and difficulty in breathing, which is called a pleural effusion or "pleurisy." This symptom was, however, be found in other diseases such as lung infections. Knowing that the effects of asbestos may not appear until many years later, the most important is to realize a lung examination when you think to have been exposed to asbestos, even long ago and for a short period.

Cancer or mesothelioma of the pleura: What's going on there during the examination?

The diagnosis is made ​​using a simple chest x-ray and scanner. These reviews assess the level of local invasion. To be certain of the diagnosis, sampling by thoracoscopy or pleuroscopy are needed. These reviews are done under anesthesia general in a brief hospitalization. The samples are sent for analysis, which can take several days.
Mesothelioma of the pleura

Pleural cancer or mesothelioma: what is the treatment?

Alas, when the cancer of the pleura occurs, it is often too tarred the treatment is therefore, usually only palliative (chemotherapy, surgery), mainly based on the management of pain, which can be very intense. Death occurs within months. Hence the value of screening if it is believed to have been exposed!
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Cancer or mesothelioma of the pleura is rare, but in the spotlight as its main cause is exposure to asbestos.

All about cancer or mesothelioma of the pleura

This is a cancer of the envelope of serious lung, which appears only late and for which there are limited treatment options.

What causes cancer or mesothelioma of the pleura?

Cancer or mesothelioma of the pleura:
when to see?
Cancer or mesothelioma of the pleura:
What's going on there during the examination?
Cancer pleural mesothelioma or what is the treatment?
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Skin cancer in young adults

Skin cancer in young adults


The skin cancers affect people more and more young people, especially young women under 40 years. The fault artificial UV, just acclaimed by these young people.

Growth of 75% of skin cancers in young

According to this U.S. study, cases of melanoma, skin cancer the most dangerous, were multiplied:

  • by eight young women from 18 to 39 years
  • by four young men,

over the past 3 decades.

This sharp increase in skin cancers is attributed, according to researchers, attendance tanning booths. Indeed, young people who regularly use tanning would see their risk of developing melanoma increase by 74%.

Skin cancer in young and artificial UV:
Skin cancer in young adults

The same phenomenon is observed in our country:

  • cancers of the skin, including melanoma, are increasing rapidly,
  • age of the victims gradually decreases,
  • parallel, the market for artificial UV was very successful.

The good news is that mortality from this cancer is declining, evidence that skin tumors are detected earlier and earlier, increasing the chances of recovery. Prevention campaigns have borne fruit. As, they aim to encourage and monitor your skin regularly to consult when in doubt.

So you also, check your skin and your loved ones in search of a spot or mole that changes in color, size, contour, etc.. Any changes must lead them to consult.

And of course, forget the tanning sessions, which are an important risk factor of being a victim of skin cancer.
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Occupational disease workers compensation

Occupational disease workers compensation

What carcinogens for which target organs?

Mineral oils: skin cancer, bladder, lung. Dust of wood: cancers of the nasal . silica: lung formaldehyde cancers: cancers of the nose pharynx. tars: skin cancer, lung, bladder. Chrome and derivatives: cancers of the nasal cavity, sinuses, and derivatives lung. Nickel: cancers of the nasal cavity, sinuses, lung. asbestos: lung cancer, cancer of the pleura. Benzene: cancer of the bone marrow, the blood.

Why is it important to declare an occupational disease?

The care and treatment related to occupational disease will be supported 100% by health insurance, no upfront fees. Daily allowances in case of absence from work due to occupational disease are higher in case of simple sick. In addition, there is no waiting period. Social protection towards the dismissal for repeated absences is important. In case of dismissal (with not reclassifying), allowances are doubled. In case of permanent sequel, annuity or compensation is paid.
Occupational disease workers compensation

In practice

The declaration of an occupational disease can be made ​​at any time, even after retirement, if one is seeking employment, if you changed jobs, etc. The physician must write a detailed medical certificate (Form single accident-related illness). The victim sends it to its health insurance fund, accompanied by a completed declaration of occupational disease.
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Occupational diseases

Occupational diseases


Even today, very few occupational cancers are recognized and compensated as such. What are the occupations that expose the most to carcinogens? What are these carcinogens by type of occupation? And finally, why is it important to declare an occupational disease?

What professions for which carcinogens?
Occupational diseases

It is estimated, from 5 to 10% of cancers have an occupational origin. If we can all be occupationally exposed to carcinogens, people who exercise are more crafts. Chemical, petrochemical, metallurgical plant: It dyes, glass, ceramics, plastics, rubber, leather tanning, textile, food agricultural and wine ... Medium: arsenical insecticides, organochlorine or organophosphate, arsenical fungicides, herbicides, phenoxyacetic acids and Construction ... Auto Repairing: asbestos, benzene, mineral oil, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, diesel particulate emissions, trichlorethylene ... Dry cleaning: perchlorethylene ... Building: asbestos, silica, mineral oils, soot, hexavalent chromium, formaldehyde, tar, lead derivatives, welding fumes ... Waste treatment: dioxins, cadmium, lead compounds ... Woodworking: dust bois. Personnel health researchers: ionizing radiation, UV, certain viruses, formaldehyde, derivatives of chromium, nickel derivatives Construction ... and ship repair, maintenance of machinery and premises, asbestos, welding fumes ... Plumbers, heating engineers, electricians, etc.: : Amiante.Peintres: silica, lead compounds and trichlorethylene, asbestos ... Manufacture of materials containing asbestos: brake pads, asbestos-cement ...
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Employer Responsibilities


Your employer is under many obligations to protect your health and that of all employees.

Employer obligations

No worker shall suffer the problems of health related to working environment or activity. The employer must take steps to ensure safety and protect the physical and mental health workers.

One carcinogen is disposed to limits of professional 60081/exposition # # / # # (OEL): benzene, vinyl chloride, silica, lead, wood dust ... All others are subject to a regulated use in the company.

The employer is subject to the following obligations:

Regularly assess the risks (nature, extent and duration of exposure), taking into account the actual conditions of work and all reported incidents;
substitute # # 60077/produits harmful "> carcinogen /, asbestos is now banned. Some chemical carcinogens are liable to limits of professional 60081/exposition # # / # # (OEL): benzene, vinyl chloride, silica, lead, wood dust ... All others are subject to a regulated use in the company.

Employer Responsibilities
The employer is subject to the following obligations:

  • Regularly assess the risks (nature, extent and duration of exposure), taking into account the actual conditions of work and all reported incidents;
  • substitute # # 60077/produits harmful by products not or less dangerous if it is impossible, reduce exposure to the lowest possible working in isolation, local exhaust ventilation, reducing the duration of exposure and number of employees exposed;
  • provide employees exposed to a carcinogen written information and an enhanced training on the health risks, precautions, procedures to be followed, the port and maintenance of individual protective equipment;

make available from the necessary personal defensive equipment.

The single document

Whatever the size of the company and its industry, the employer must establish a "single document," available to staff representatives, the labor inspector, the occupational physician, agents of prevention of the Regional Health Insurance Fund (CRAM) and other systems of social protection. It assesses risks and determines the preventive measures to be implemented. This is an essential document for the prevention of occupational hazards.
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Occupational healthcare

Occupational healthcare


The cancer is considered an occupational disease if it meets the conditions listed in a table of occupational disease. The nature of professional cancer may also be established by the Regional Committee for the recognition of occupational diseases (CRRMP).

What is a table of occupational disease?

The professional nature of cancer is established based on specific criteria: definition of the disease, evidence of carcinogen exposure, exposure time, maximum time since exposure. These criteria are reflected in the "tables of occupational diseases" that is part of the Code of Social Security. Results of the negotiation between the social partners meeting in a special commission, which involves the FNATH, these paintings are constantly evolving based on scientific knowledge. Today, for the system overall, 20 tables list the list of cancers professionals supported (all cases not included). There are also tables in the agricultural system.
Occupational healthcare

What is the complement system?

Since 1993, there is a system called "complementary" which allows to recognize the occupational origin of his illness, if the criteria are not met or if there are no tables. In these cases, the file is reviewed by the Regional Committee for the recognition of occupational disease s (CRRMP) decision before Social Security.

What is the procedure?

The patient (or his beneficiaries) must apply to the CPAM (Caisse primary health insurance) or MSA (MSA) by sending the initial medical certificate from doctor stating the diagnosis and reporting of the link possible between cancer and occupational exposure. The declaration must be made within two years after diagnosis. The body must respond within three months, six months in case of especially challenging.

In case of refusal of the box, the deadline for contesting the decision is two months. Where the refusal is confirmed by the Appeals court (CRA), an action may be undertaken with the Tribunal of Social Security Affairs (TASS), then the appellate court. Compensation for asbestos-related cancers to cancers related to asbestos, compensation is possible through the compensation fund for asbestos victims (FIVA). Given the huge number of people exposed for years to products containing asbestos in their work, the government has created this fund. The objective is to enable fast, and automatic compensation of persons found patients under the Social Security Table No. 30 or 30 bis on asbestos, while avoiding clogging the courts with a multiplicity of proceedings in criminal negligence the employer. It may also receive compensation from FIVA people who have a specific pathology of asbestos (pleural plaques, mesothelioma ...) or are suffering from a disease caused by non-occupational exposure to asbestos (environmental victims ).

The underreporting of occupational cancers

System deficiencies lead to underreporting of recognized occupational cancers. For example, less than 10 bladder cancers are recognized each year as the National Institute of Health Watch estimates the number between 625 and 1110. However, the declaration of occupational cancers allows better compensation (supports 100% of costs of care without advance fees, per diem, plus compensation if evidence of gross negligence of the employer is made) . However, recognition of the professional nature of some cancers contributes greatly to the awareness of risks in the workplace and encourages the efforts of prevention. It can also help to change the tables.

The assistance of FNATH

Present throughout the territory, the FNATH, only association representing victims of occupational cancers, irrespective of origin, accompanied since 1921, by patients and their families for administrative procedures related to the recognition of occupational origin of diseases, including cancers. In the event of litigation, the FNATH, through an extensive network of legal experts and medical defends its members' social courts. It is important to gather as many elements, to be assisted as soon as possible in every step. Beyond the legal and medical support, the FNATH can provide many services to patients and their families (using medialized, human services, insurance , ...).
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What is pneumoconiosis

What is pneumoconiosis

If silicosis due to mining of coal is a disease endangered, it is not true for asbestosis linked to the inhalation of asbestos particles.

The pneumoconioses are frequent and severe illnesses to know well.

Pneumoconiosis is defined as non-cancerous lung disease caused by inhaling particles (mainly asbestos or silica dust). They are the second-leading cause of occupational diseases. The asbestos fibers or silica inhaled to affect fibrotic tissue in the lung and pleura (membrane surrounding the lungs). They are somehow trapped and persist almost indefinitely in these tissues without being eliminated.

Any respiratory problem in a person working or having worked in the areas of thermal insulation, the flocking, cement, brake linings and clutches should suggest a pathology related to the inhalation of asbestos particles. For silica, it is found in the glass industry, ceramics (sanitary, tiles), the manufacture of refractory bricks, abrasives, in foundries. A declaration of occupational disease is made ​​by the patient with her ​​health insurance, accompanied by a certificate in triplicate. The medical officer will then call upon experts in the College of pneumoconiosis or Three Doctors. If recognition of the disease, an employee's compensation is possible.
What is pneumoconiosis

When to consult
These diseases are characterized by shortness of breath (dyspnea), or even no symptoms.

The examinations are based on auscultation of the lungs, the chest X-ray and lung function tests to assess the impairment of respiratory function. This examination is done by blowing into various measuring air flows.

Treatments are mainly based on prevention in the workplace (wearing masks, pollution controls, risk information ...). In mines and quarries, radiographs and pulmonary function tests are done as routine.
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Occupational cancer

Occupational cancer


The products or substances causing cancer are numerous and widespread in the workplace. The more 60081/expositions # # / # # are long, strong and countless, the greater the risk is important.

How do we contaminate?

By inhalation

Most often it is through inhalation that takes place the contamination. Dusts and powders for suspension, gas, fumes, aerosols, vapors ... many carcinogens can pollute the air we breathe.

By ingestion

Contamination by mouth is rare. However, it is potential to ingest particles of carcinogens, raising her hands dirty or contaminated objects in their mouths. It is also possible to swallow particles that settle on the face, especially on the lips.


Some carcinogens can enter the body through the skin. Contamination can occur when the material is handled with bare hands, but also to receive projections of the product or by contact with an object (soaked cloth) or a work plan contaminated.
Occupational cancer

Classification based on risk.

The classification of the Union covers only chemical carcinogens; it divides into three categories:

Substances of category 1, carcinogenic to humans,
substances of category 2, on which data are available strongly suggesting a carcinogenic effect, but no formal proof,
Category 3 substances, called "concern" about which there is evidence to suggest a possible carcinogenic effect, but not yet enough information.
The IARC classification (International Agency for Research on Cancer) covers all carcinogens which she distinguishes four categories:

a group of agents, known carcinogens to humans,
agents in group 2, probably carcinogenic (2A) or possibly carcinogenic (2B) to humans,
agents in Group 3, unclassifiable (insufficient data)
staff in a group 4, apparently not carcinogenic to humans.
Only the classification of the European Union has a legal value. That IARC can merely draw up an inventory of knowledge about the effects of a given agent.

Night Work

A growing number of studies suggested that night work, by disrupting the functioning of our biological clock, may increase the risk of developing certain cancers, particularly of breast. IARC has also recently published a notice stating that the work-hours, resulting in disruption of the natural cycle of day / night are "probably carcinogenic to humans."


The exposure to asbestos fibers increases the risk of pleural cancer (also called "mesothelioma"), the envelope that surrounds the lungs. It also increases the risk of lung cancer and, to a lesser extent, the risk of cancer of the larynx (throat), pericardium (envelope that surrounds the heart) and peritoneum (envelope surrounding the viscera in the abdomen). Some evidence suggests that it as well promote some cancers of the digestive tract. About 25% of men currently retired to have been exposed to asbestos during their working lives. The occupations most affected are employees of industry's production and processing of asbestos, the building trades, heating contractors, workers in shipyards and railways, the industrial coach builders, car mechanics, sheet metal- Boilermakers, plumbers, electricians, carpenters, welders ...


The association between pesticide exposure and increased risk of cancer is still under investigation. However, data suggest a link "probable" or "possible" between certain pesticides and different types of cancers. Several studies provide data suggesting an association between pesticide exposure and increased risk of cancer of the brain, thyroid and lung. A team, supported by the CRA, has also recently identified a molecular link between pesticides and a form of blood cancer (lymphoma). Finally, some data suggest that pesticides may increase the risk of hormone-dependent cancers ( breast, ovarian, testicular and prostate ). The occupational exposure to pesticides (past or present, in workers now retired) affects 1 to 2 million people.

Wood dust

The job processing timber, sawing and grinding, generates a significant amount of sawdust and chips. Transportation activities and waste wood products at its processing and the manufacture of wooden furniture and objects also generates dust. However, this is dust causing respiratory diseases and skin. They include the source of cancers of the nasal cavity and sinuses (sin-nasal cancers). The risk of developing such a cancer would be 40 times higher for cabinetmakers and carpenters than among workers not exposed to such dust. The occupations most at risk working in the wood industry and paper, furniture manufacturing, construction or logging ...
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Environmental factors of cancer

Environmental factors of cancer


The National Institute for Health and Medical Research (INSERM) publishes the results of a literature review on possible links between environment and development of certain cancers. Without giving any definitive answers about a complex subject, however, the study provides a number of lessons.

Sharp increase in cancer in 25 years, but declining mortality

The origin of the study is the observation that in 25 years; the incidence rate of cancer rose 35% in men and 43% among women, reaching about 320,000 new cases in 2005 ( 180,000 males and 140,000 females). This evolution was accompanied, however, during the same period, a continued decline in mortality from cancers, thanks to advances in screening and treatment. This decline in mortality even accelerated over the last five years.
Environmental factors of cancer

The study by Inserm on the issue was commissioned by the French Agency of Health Safety Environment and Labour (Afsset). This review of the literature on the subject is based on a documentary basis of nearly 1800 items available in the first half of 2007. Conducted by two research groups with expertise in the fields of epidemiology, toxicology, clinical, the occupational health and risk quantification, it covers nine types of cancer: lung cancer, mesotheliomas, hematologic neoplasms, brain tumors, breast, ovarian, testicular, prostate and thyroid. These locations correspond to cancers whose incidence has increased over the last twenty years and for which a link with environmental factors may be suspected.

Each of the nine cancers studied the subject of detailed analysis that strives, from the available scientific literature, to answer a series of questions: what are the incidence data and their changes (according to regions) and in other countries? What are the environmental risk factors in the workplace or general identified as carcinogens or debated? What are the available epidemiological data on these factors? ... Other issues are discussed in section, like those of the main mechanisms of toxicity, mode of action of certain pollutants or different ways to quantify exposure to environmental agents.

From the analysis of these issues, the study indicates the best sources of information on exposures and their evolutionary trends in recent decades. An implication is that the link between cancer and environmental factors must still be studied. The study makes finally for each of the cancers studied, a number of recommendations.
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Pleura Cancer

Pleura Cancer

Cancer of the pleura, or pleural mesothelioma is a rare and aggressive cancer. Difficult to diagnose, it is often confused with lung cancer. It is bound in the great majority of cases with exposure to asbestos.

What are the risk factors for cancer of the pleura?

This cancer affects the pleura, the membrane that surrounds the lungs and lines the chest cavity. In 75-80% of cases, cancer of the pleura is associated with exposure to asbestos.
Pleura Cancer

The asbestos fibers migrate into the pleura where they trigger an inflammatory reaction. Eventually, in 20 to 50, years, the attack often stimulates the proliferation of malignant cells.

The sectors most at the possibility of exposure to asbestos and therefore, at risk for cancer of the pleura are plumber's pipe fitters,   Boilermakers Hauliers, the sectors of shipbuilding and processing of asbestos.

Overall, the incidence of mesothelioma increases with age. These are generally those over sixty years who have been detected this type of cancer. Moreover, the diagnosis is not easy and cancer of the pleura is often confused with lung cancer. As for the prognosis of this rare cancer (1,000 cases per annum) but aggressive, it is rather dark, but everything depends on the stage at diagnosis.

What are the symptoms of cancer of the pleura?
  • Difficulty breathing (dyspnea).
  • Chest pain.

These are the two major symptoms that usually lead patients to consult. The multiplication of cancer cells eventually prevents the spread of liquid between the layers of the pleura, where such symptoms.
  • Weight Loss
  • Fever
  • Night sweats
  • Cough
  • Feeling of discomfort
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